Tenses

TENSES IN ENGLISH

1. Simple Present Tense

    Tense ini mempunyai dua kegunaan, yaitu

    1). Untuk menyatakan suatu ” habitual action ” atau tindakan yang biasa dilakukan

sehari-hari.

2). Untuk menyatakan suatu “general truth ” atau kebenaran yang bersifat umum.

    Tese ini dibagi atas dua jenis kalimat, yakni verbal sentece dan nominal sentence,

sebagai berikut :

a. Verbal Sentence :

Verbal Sentence ialah kalimat yang prediketnya terdiri dari kata kerja, pada tense ini

prediketnya terdiri dari kata kerja bentuk I ( Verb I )

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Verb I ( plua s/es/ies) + Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

            – She studies English at schhol every Monday

– He washes my car in the garace  every Sunday

– They clean the class rooms at school every day

        Bila Subject merupakan orang ketiga tunggal, maka Verb I ditambah dengan

akhiran s/es/atau ies seperti :

– Eat …………………………………………………………………………..Eat    + s ……Eats

– Wash ( berakhiran huruf desis)…………………………………….Wash + es….Washes

– Study ( berakhiran huruf y, huruf y diganti dgn huruf i) ..Studi  + es ….Studies

b. Nominal Sentence :

Nominal Sentence ialah kalimat yang prediketnya terdiri dari selain kata kerja                  (yakni  Noun/Adjective/Adverb )

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + To Be (is/am/are) + Noun/Adjective/ Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

      – She is a nurse in the hospital recently

– You are good at English recently

– I am busy in my office lately

 

2. Simple Present Continuous Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk mengungkap sesuatu perbuatan/kejadian yang sedang

berlangsung pada saat kita mengungkapkannya.

    a. Verbal Sentence

Predikat kalimat terdiri dari Verb I (plus ing )

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + To Be (is/am/are) + Verb I (plus ing ) + Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

           – She is studying English at school now

– He is washing my car in the garace  this morning

– They are cleaning the class rooms at school this afternoon

    b. Nominal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari Noun/adjective/Adverb

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + To Be (is/am/are) + being + Noun/Adjective/ Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

         – She is being a nurse in the hospital now

– You are being  good at English now

– I am being busy in my officenow

 

 

 

3. Simpe Past Tense 

Tense ini berguna untuk mengungkapkan sesuatu yang terjadi pada masa lampau.

    a. Verbal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari kata kerja bentuk II ( Verb II )

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Verb II + Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :  

            – She studied English at schhol yesterday

– He washed my car in the garace  two days ago

– They cleaned the class rooms at school yesterday afternoon

    b. Nominal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari Noun/Adjective/adverb

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + To Be (was/were) + Noun/Adjective/ Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

       – She was a nurse in the hospital last year.

– You were good at English three years ago

– I was busy in my office yesterday

 

4. Simple Past Continuous Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang terjadi atau sedang dilakukan

pada waktu lampau bersamaan dengan terjadinya sesuatu yang lainnya.

a. Verbal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari Verb I (plus ing)

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + To Be (was/were) + Verb I (plus ing ) + Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

 

Example :

           – She was studying English at school at 10 a.m yesterday morning.

– He was washing my car in the garace at 8 yesterday morning.

– They were cleaning the class rooms at school at 4 p.m yesterday afternoon

b. Nominal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari Noun/Adjective/Adverb

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + To Be (was/were) + being + Noun/Adjective/ Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

         – She was being a nurse in the hospital when I met her last year

– You were being  good at English when I spoke to You three years ago

– I was being busy in my office when You met me yesterday afternoon

 

5. Simple Future Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang akan terjadi atau akan dilakukan

pada  waktu yang akan datang.

    a. Verbal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari kata kerja bentuk I ( Verb I )

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Will/Shall + Verb I + Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :  

            – She will study English at school tomorrow.

– He will wash my car in the garace tomorrow morning.

– They will clean the class rooms at school tomorrow afternoon.

Penggunaan Auxialiary disesuaikan dengan Subject :

– Untuk Subject I dan We auxialiary yang digunakan adalah “shall ”

– Untuk Subject You, They, He, She, It dan sejenisnya menggunakan ” Will ”

 

Tapi pada bahasa Inggris Amerika dapat digunakan ” will ” untuk Subject I dan

We.

    b. Nominal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari Noun/adjective/Adverb

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Will/Shall + Be + Noun/Adjective/ Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of  Time

Example :

      – She will be a nurse in the hospital next month.

– You will be good at English next time

– I shall be busy in my office tomorrow

 

6. Simple Future Continuous Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk mengungkapkan sesuatu yang akan sedang dilakukan atau

akan sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu pada waktu yang akan datang.

Rumus tense-nya sebagai berikut :

Subject + Will/Shall + Be + Verb I  ( plus ing ) n+ Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :  

         – She will be studying English at school at 11 tomorrow morning.

– He will be washing my car in the garace at 10 tomorrow morning.

– They will be cleaning the class rooms at school 6 tomorrow afternoon.

Penggunaan Auxialiary disesuaikan dengan Subject :

– Untuk Subject I dan We auxialiary yang digunakan adalah “shall ”

– Untuk Subject You, They, He, She, It dan sejenisnya menggunakan ” Will ”

Tapi pada bahasa Inggris Amerika dapat digunakan ” will ” untuk Subject I dan We. 

 

 

 

7. Simple Past Future Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk mengungkapkan sesuatu yang akan dilakukan pada waktu

lampau

a. Verbal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari kata kerja bentuk I ( Verb I )

Rumus tense-nya sebagai berikut :

Subject + Would/Should + Veb I + Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :  

         – She would study English at school yesterday afternoon.

– He would wash my car in the garace yesterday morning.

– They would clean the class rooms at school yesterday afternoon.

Penggunaan Auxialiary disesuaikan dengan Subject :

– Untuk Subject I dan We auxialiary yang digunakan adalah “should ”

– Ubtuk Subject You, They, He, She, It dan sejenisnya menggunakan ” Would ”

Tapi pada bahasa Inggris Amerika dapat digunakan ” would ” untuk Subject I dan

We.

    b. Nominal Sentence

Prediket kalinmat terdiri dari Noun/Adjective/Adverb

Rumus kalimat :

Subject + Would/Should + Be + Noun/Adjective/ Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of  Time

Example :        

        – She would be a nurse in the hospital last year.

– You would be good at English before.

– I should be busy in my office yesterday morning

 

 

 

 

8. Simple Past Future Continuous Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang akan sedang

berlangsaung pada waktu tertentu di waktu lampau. Pada tense ini prediket kalimat

terdiri dari Verb I (plus ing)

Rumus tense-nya sebagai berikut :

Subject + Would/Should + Be + Verb I (plus ing) + Object + Adverb of  Place + Adverb of  Time

Example :  

         – She would be studying English at school when I met her at 3 yesterday afternoon.

– He would be washing  my car in the garace  at 10  yesterday morning.

– They would cbe leaning the class rooms at school at 4  yesterday afternoon

Penggunaan Auxialiary disesuaikan dengan Subject :

– Untuk Subject I dan We auxialiary yang digunakan adalah “should ”

– Ubtuk Subject You, They, He, She, It dan sejenisnya menggunakan ” Would ”

Tapi pada bahasa Inggris Amerika dapat digunakan ” would ” untuk Subject I dan

We.

 

9. Present Perfect Tense

Tense ini mempunyai dua kegunaanm, yaitu :

1). Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang telah selesai dikerjakan.

2). Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang telah terjadi sejak waktu tertentu di waktu lampau

dan berlangsung terus sampai kita mengatakannya sekarang.

a. Verbal Sentence :

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari kata kerja bentuk III ( Verb III )

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Have/Has + Verb III + Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

            – She has studied English at schhol since 2005

– He has washed my car

– They had clean the class rooms

        Bila Subject merupakan orang ketiga tunggal ( He, She, It, dan sejenisnya),  maka

kata bantu yang digunakan adalah ” has ”

Sedangkan bila Subject selain orang ketiga tungga ( I, You, We, They, dan

sejenisnya ) maka kata bantu yang digunakan adalah ” have “.

b. Nominal Sentence :

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari Noun/Adjective/Adverb

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Have/Has + Been + Noun/Adjective/ Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

      – She has been a nurse in the hospital since 2008

– You have been good at English

– I have been busy in my office since this morning

 

10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

      Tense ini berguna untuk menyatayakan sesuatu yang telah terjadi semenjak waktu

lampau dan berlangsung terus sampai sekarang dan pada saat ini masih sedang

terus dilakukan dalam proses penyelesaiannya. Prediket kalimat terdiri dari Verb I

(plus ing).

Rumus tense-nya sebagai beriku :

Subject + Have/Has + Been + Verb I (plus ing )+ Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

  – He has been studying English in the classroom for hours

– Andy has been staying in this hotel for almost a week

– They have been painting the house since this morning.

 

 

11. Past Perfect Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang telah seselesai dikerjakan pada

waktu lampau sebelum atau pada saat peristiwa yang lain terjadi.

a. Verbal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari kata kerja bentuk III ( Verb III )

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Had + Verb III + Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Place

Example :

– He had gone to to the bus terminal when I arrived

– Rini had taken the novel from my bag after I read it

       b. Nominal Sentence

Prediketnya terdiri dari Noun/Adjective/Adverb

Rumus tense-nya :

           Subject + Had + Been + Noun/Adjective/Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Contoh kalimat :

– She had been sick for along time before She died

– Budi had been back home before I came

 

12. Past Percfect Continuous Tense 

Berguna untuk  untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa  yang telah sedang

terjadi dimasa lampau diwaktu tertentu  atau pada saat terjadi kejadian lainnya di

waktu lampau. Prediketnya terdiri dari Verb I (plus ing)

 

Rumus tense-nya sebagai berikut :

Subject + had + been + Verb I (plus ing) + Object + adverb of  Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

  – I had been repairing the car in the garage when the mechanic came

– He had been reading a newspaper in the library when I saw him yesterday

morning

Note :

Dalam setiap tenses yang mengandung Perfect Continuous, maka “sedang”  nya itu

mengandung arti “sudah dimulai, masih terjadi, dan masih terus”, lebih panjang

periodenya, dan itu bisa kini (present), bisa dulu (past) dan bisa akan datang (future)

 

13. Future Perfect Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang akan telah selesai dilakukan pada

waktu tertentu diwaktu yang akan datang.

a. Verbal Sentence

Prediketnya terdiri dari kata kerja bentuk III ( Verb III )

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + will/Shall + Have + Verb III + Object + Adverb of  Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

– She will have finished the test in the office at three o’clock this afternoon

– I shall heve completed all my work by three o’clock tomorrow afternoon

– They will have slept soundly if  We came to their house at 11 o’clock toninght.

b. Nominal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari Noun/Adjective/Adverb

Runus tense-nya :

Subject + Will/Shall + Have + Been + Noun/Adjective/Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of  Time

Example :

– Dedy will heve been here three years next April 2nd

– She will have been a doctor in the hospital two years next July 1st.

 

 

14. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang akan, telah dan masih

berlangung di masa datang. Prediket kalimat terdiri dari Verb I (plus ing)

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Will/Shall + Have + Been + Verb I ( plus ing ) + Object + adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example  :

– I will have been swimming in the pool for 30 minutes at 9 tomorrow

– I shall have been repairing the car in the garage for 15 minutes at 10 tomorrow.

 

15. Past Future Perfect Tense

Tense ini khusus berguna untuk pengandaian pada waktu lampau, dimana sesuatu

semestinya akan telah terjadi apabila pada saat itu suatu syarat telah dipenuhi.

a. Verbal Sentence

Prediket kalimat terdiri dari kata kerja bentuk III ( Verb III )

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Would/Shoul + Have + Verb III + Object + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

b. Nominal Sentence

Prediketnya terdiri dari Noun/Adjective/Adverb

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + would/Should + Have + Been + Noun/Adjective/Adverb + Adverb of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

– He would have married Lisa if He had become a doctor three months ago.

– Hary would have married Rita two weeks ago if She hadn’t got an accident.

– She would have asked me to stay in her house if She had known I was here.

– Andy would have passed the examination if He had learned hard.

– Arif would have been a lawyer last year if He had passed the test.

 

16. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Tense ini berguna untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian atau peristiwa akan telah sedang

terjadi di masa lampau. Prediketnya terdiri dari Verb I (plus ing)

Rumus tense-nya :

Subject + Would/Sholud + Have + Been + Verb I (plus ing ) + object + Adver of Place + Adverb of Time

Example :

  – I would have been watcing on TV for 30 minutes when You called me last night.

saya malam tadi.

– I would have been wating for you for about 30 minutes at this time yesterday.

– We should have been living in Medan for 5 years in June 2011

or :

  – When You called me last night, I would have been watcing on TV for 30 minutes.

– At this time yesterday, I would have been wating for you for about 30 minutes.

– In June 2011, We should have been living in Medan for 5 years

 

 

 

 

 

About fitry4ni

I'm 16 years old. I was born in Bogor. my hobbies are listen music, watching film, and sometimes reading novel or comic.
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